Data collection is a challenging task in wireless
sensor networks (WSNs) due to the limitations in
communication bandwidth and the energy budget.
Many practical applications require continuous
long-term data collection, without interruption for
months or even years. Generally, WSNs consist
of some number of battery-powered sensors.
Through a multihop path, a sensor node transmits
the information wirelessly to a receiver node with
a limited communication range. Here, the multihop represents the communication between two
end nodes via a number of intermediate nodes.
Therefore, a single communication contains multiple
paths to transmit the information. An efficient
data-collection strategy is designed to minimize the
energy cost of the sensor nodes; it also improves
the network lifetime. In many applications, the
gathering of continuous datasets from a resource-constrained WSN is unnecessary and difficult. It
causes serious problems during the transmission
of large amounts of data to the sink node. Due to
the limited bandwidth of sensor nodes, packet drop
reduces the quality of data. The largest amount of
energy is consumed when more data are collected
because data are transmitted or collected in the form
of packets. In general, 0.1 J of energy is allocated for
each and every packet; therefore, if more data are
collected, obviously, a large amount of energy
Secure communication is the most essential task to
ensure the integrity and authenticity of transmitted
data. In many applications, secure data transfer
between the sensor nodes and the base station is also
2 While transferring the message, the base
station must ensure that the obtained message should
not be modified. A lightweight authentication scheme
was required to protect data from unprivileged users,
which is used in various WSN applications, e.g.,
military domains and health care monitoring. Generally,
the multihop path becomes the target of attacks. It
attacks nodes physically and creates a traffic collision
or makes communication jam on the channel by
generating radio interferences. Data encryption is
essential in sensor networks when the sensors can be
the subject of many types of attacks. Attackers can
easily monitor and inject false data when the data are
transmitted without encryption in the network.
In general, sensor nodes encrypt the data on a hop-by-hop basis. An intermediate node keeps the keys
of all sensing nodes, decrypts the received encrypted
value and gathers all of the received values. Finally, the
result in transmission to the base station is encrypted.
This method is complicated and expensive due to the
received data being decrypted before aggregation.
Additionally, it produces an overhead imposed by
To overcome these issues, this article focuses on
a secure data-gathering scheme that considers
throughput, delay and energy quality of service (QoS)
parameters. To reduce the computational overhead
of sensor nodes, this article proposes a new hash-based authentication scheme for WSNs that produces
a strong and unique message authentication code
for a particular message. A preshared secret key is
obtained from the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key
Exchange (ECDH-KE) algorithm. This algorithm is
designed based on a modified hash function that is
used to calculate the message authentication code for
giving messages. This algorithm delivers both integrity
and the authenticity of a message with a single hash
value. Before transmitting the message, the signature
is verified by each sensor node to minimize the
overhead introduced in the network.
Suppose that Alice wants to transmit data to Bob.
Initially, the network is formed by generating a
private key for all nodes. After that, a neighbor
estimation is done using Euclidean distance. To
discover the route, the distance of the node from the
source, Alice, to the destination, Bob, is calculated.
The formula for finding the distance is:
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Michael Roseline Juliana
Is an associate professor in the Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering at St. Michael College of Engineering and
Technology (Kalayarkoil, Tamilnadu, India).
Subramaniam Srinivasan, Ph.D.
Is professor and head of the Department of Computer Science and
Engineering at Anna University at the regional office in Madurai, Tamilnadu,
India. He has published more than 90 research papers in journals,
conferences and workshops.
A Secure Data-gathering Approach
in Wireless Sensor Networks
Considering QoS Via Hashing Mechanism